|Thomas C. Dula|
June 22, 1845|
Wilkes County, North Carolina
May 1, 1868 (aged 22)|
Iredell County, North Carolina
|Cause of death||hanging (capital punishment)|
|Other names||Tom Dula aka "Tom Dooley"|
|Occupation||farm hand, soldier|
|Known for||Progenitor of the "Tom Dooley" folk song.|
Thomas C. Dula (June 22, 1845 – May 1, 1868) was a former Confederate soldier, who was tried, convicted, and hanged for the murder of his fiancée, Laura Foster. The trial and hanging received national publicity from newspapers such as The New York Times, thus turning Dula's story into a folk legend. While the murder happened in Wilkes County, North Carolina, the trial, conviction, and execution took place in Statesville, North Carolina. There was considerable controversy surrounding his conviction and execution. In subsequent years, a folk song was written (entitled “Tom Dooley”, based on the pronunciation in the local dialect), and many oral traditions were passed down, regarding the sensational occurrences surrounding the murder of Foster, and Dula's subsequent execution. The Kingston Trio recorded a hit version of the murder ballad in 1958.
Tom Dula was born to a poor Appalachian hill country family in Wilkes County, North Carolina, most likely the youngest of three brothers, with one younger sister, Eliza. The young Dula grew up, attended school, and "probably played with the female Fosters", Ann (later Melton), and Laura, her younger cousin. As the children grew up, Tom and Ann apparently became intimate. Three months before his eighteenth birthday, on 15 March 1862, he joined the Confederate Army. Dula served as a private in Company K in the 42nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment until the war ended in 1865. Surprisingly, there is some evidence that Dula was literate, as according to accounts at the time, he wrote a 15-page account of his life, as well as the note that exonerated Ann Melton. His literacy is highly unusual given his station in life, and the harsh poverty of his upbringing.
Contrary to newspaper accounts at the time, Dula did not serve in Zebulon Vance's 26th North Carolina. This also puts the lie to the rumors that he “played the banjo” in the army band for the Colonel's benefit, or that he entertained Colonel Vance with his antics. These were often cited as the reason that the then-Governor Vance leapt so quickly to lead the defense of Dula during his trial. It seems more likely that Governor Vance simply believed in Dula's innocence or thought that defending a Confederate veteran in the high-profile case would be politically beneficial. Dula would not escape the war completely unscathed, as folklore, oral tradition, and a few modern writers have held. Instead he suffered various injuries throughout the course of the fighting. Each of his brothers died in the war, leaving Tom as his mother's “sole remaining boy”.
The murder of Laura Foster
Upon returning from the war, Dula discovered that Ann had married James Melton. Given his reputation as something of a libertine, it did not take Dula long to take up with young Laura. She became pregnant shortly thereafter, and she and Dula decided to elope. On the night she was to meet Dula, about the 26th of May, 1866, she left her home, never to be seen alive again. While it is not known for certain what happened that evening, many of the stories that have grown out of the folklore of the time implicate Ann Melton in some way. Some believe that Ann may have murdered Laura Foster because she was still in love with Dula and was jealous that Laura was marrying him; others believe that perhaps Dula knew or suspected that Ann had murdered Foster, but because he still loved Ann he refused to implicate her after he was arrested and took the blame for the murder. In fact, it was Ann's word that led to the discovery of the girl's body. Foster had been stabbed multiple times with a large knife. The gruesome nature of the murder, combined with the fact that Laura Foster was pregnant when she was killed, captured the public's attention, and led to the enduring notoriety of the crime.
The role of Dula in the slaying is unclear. He fled shortly after her body was found– when he was declared a suspect– working for a time for Colonel James Grayson, in Watauga County, before taking refuge across the state line in Trade, Tennessee. Grayson would enter folklore as a romantic rival of Dula's, but this was not true. It was simply an incorrect inference drawn from the lyrics of the song, and became more widespread as the actual facts of the case were largely forgotten. Grayson did, however, help the Wilkes County posse bring Dula in, once his identity was discovered.
After Dula was arrested, former North Carolina Governor Zebulon Vance represented him pro bono, and maintained Dula's innocence of the charges. He succeeded in having the trial moved from Wilkesboro to Statesville, as it was widely believed that Dula would not receive a fair trial in Wilkes County. Dula was convicted and, although he was given a new trial on appeal, he was convicted again. His supposed accomplice, Jack Keaton, was set free and, on Dula's word, Melton was acquitted of the crime. As he stood on the gallows facing his death, he is reported to have said, “Gentlemen, do you see this hand? I didn’t harm a hair on the girl’s head”. He was executed nearly two years after the murder of his fiancée, on 1 May 1868. His younger sister and her husband retrieved his body for burial after the execution.
After the execution
In 2001, Tom Dula was "acquitted" of all charges after a petition was sent around Wilkes County and to the county seat. This action was unofficial and had no legal force.
Subsequently, much legend and folklore arose around the tragedy and the life of Tom Dula. Not the least of these tales has Dula surviving the war without a scratch, and Governor Zebulon Baird Vance making use of Dula’s supposed talents with a banjo for his own personal entertainment. Both Dula’s and Vance’s accounts, as well as Dula’s own military record, show this legend to be untrue; it persists nonetheless.
A popular myth holds that while Dula was fighting in Virginia, Ann – apparently despairing of ever seeing Tom again – met and married an older farmer, James Melton. In reality, Ann married James Melton in 1859, three years before Tom left for the war, though it's unclear whether or not that actually changed the nature of the relationship between Tom and Ann.
In popular culture
A local poet named Thomas Land wrote a song about the tragedy shortly after Dula was hanged. This, combined with the widespread publicity the trial received, further cemented Dula’s place in North Carolina legend. The song written by Land is still sung today throughout North Carolina.
Several recordings were made of the song in the twentieth century, with the first in 1929 by a group called “Grayson and Whitter”. The most popular version was recorded by The Kingston Trio in 1958. It sold over 6 million copies, is widely credited with starting the “folk boom” of this time period, and was named by the Grammy Foundation as one of the Songs of the Century.
The Trio's song was covered in Great Britain by Lonnie Donegan later in 1958.
In 1959, Michael Landon was given the role of Dula in the movie The Legend of Tom Dooley. The movie was not based on the facts of Dula’s life, except in the very loosest sense, and neither was it based on any traditional Tom Dula legends. It was rather a fictional treatment inspired by the lyrics of the song.
The members of Macabre, known for their death metal style also put out an album of acoustic folk songs, among them is a song entitled Tom Dooley, about his death.
- West, John Foster. The Ballad of Tom Dula: The Documented Story Behind the Murder of Laura Foster. Parkway Publishers. ISBN 1887905553.
- "Wilkes Co. Chamber of Commerce: History of Tom Dula". Wilkes Co. Chamber of Commerce. http://www.wilkesnc.org/history/tomdula/. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
- West, John Foster. Lift up Your Head, Tom Dooley: The True Story of the Appalachian Murder That Inspired One of America's Most Popular Ballads. Asheboro, North Carolina: Down Home Press. ISBN 1878086200.
- Sharyn McCrumb (2007-01-01). "Tom Dooley: Bound to Die". Blue Ridge Country. http://www.blueridgecountry.com/archive/tom-dooley.html. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Bill Cissna (2006-09-13). "North Carolina hills hold tale of Tom Dooley". The Atlanta-Journal Constitution. http://www.ajc.com/services/content/travel/southeast/nc_stories/2006/09/12/0913dooley.html. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
- Lundin, Leigh (2010-02-21). "Who Killed Laura Foster?". Tom Dula. Criminal Brief. http://criminalbrief.com/?p=11062.
- Lopresti, Rob (2010-01-17). "Boy Kills Girl". Tom Dooley. Criminal Brief. http://www.criminalbrief.com/?p=11015. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
- ed. John & Alan Lomax, ed (1947). Folk Song USA: The 111 Best American Ballads. Duell, Sloan and Pearce. ISBN B000I6X8DC.
- "G.B. Grayson and Henry Whitter". Our Musical Heritage– Biographies. Bristol, Tn: Birthplace of Country Music Alliance. 2007-09-30. http://www.birthplaceofcountrymusic.org/node/207http://www.birthplaceofcountrymusic.org/node/207.
- "Grayson & Whitter". Artist Biography. CMT. 2009-10-18. http://www.cmt.com/artists/az/grayson_whitter/bio.jhtml. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- The Legend of Tom Dooley at the Internet Movie Database; retrieved on 2007-10-19
- Finding Tom Dula's and Laura Foster's resting places
- Tom Dooley: a Wilkes County Legend, a Play
- Tom Dula's story on archive of Wilkes Chamber of Commerce website
- Tom Dula's gravestone images
- North Carolina Historical Marker
da:Tom Dooley zh:汤姆·杜里