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Vermillion, John Wilson "Texas Jack"
Civil War enlistment photo
Born 1842
Russell County, Virginia
Died 1911 (aged 68–69)
Washington County, Virginia
Occupation Soldier, lawman, outlaw, Methodist preacher
Spouse(s) Margaret Horton, Nannie Fleenor
Children Son Oppie, Daughter Minnie Bell
Parents William Vermillion, Nancy Owens

John Wilson Vermillion (1842–1911), alias "Texas Jack," and later as "Shoot-Your-Eye-Out" Vermillion, was a gunfighter of the Old West known for his participation in the Earp vendetta ride and his later association with Soapy Smith.

Early life[]

Vermillion was born in 1842 in Russell County, Virginia, the second of 12 children born to William and Nancy Vermillion née Owens. He was a Confederate civil war veteran (see photo at right) and fought under the command of General J.E.B. Stuart. After the war, Jack went to Indiana where he married Margaret Horton in September, 1865. They moved to Missouri where Jack accepted the position as Territorial Marshal for the eastern section of Missouri. Jack's wife and two young children (a daughter and son) died in a diphtheria epidemic in Missouri, while Jack was away.

Tombstone, Arizona Territory[]

Jack eventually wound up in Kansas in the late 1870s. He went to Tombstone, Arizona (Arizona Territory), from Dodge City, Kansas, where he possibly previously knew the Earps and also perhaps Doc Holliday. He was listed by Virgil Earp as special policeman (i.e., deputy city policeman) June 22, 1881. This is the day of the large Tombstone fire of 1881, with which Virgil had to cope as acting city marshal; the date suggests that Jack is one of the extra men Virgil hired to help cope with looting, during and after the disaster.

The origin of Texas Jack, Vermillion's nickname, is unknown, but he is first listed by this moniker on a wanted poster, for shooting a man during an argument at cards. When asked about why he was called Texas Jack, he replied "Because I'm from Virginia."

In the unpublished 1926 John H. Flood manuscript of Wyatt Earp's biography, Vermillion is mentioned (as "Texas Jack") several times as not being a close friend of the Earps, but rather a relative stranger. This fact caused Wyatt some chagrin in memory, since Vermillion stayed by him at Iron Springs when the other three men in his posse at the time (Doc, Johnson, and McMasters) fled under fire (Warren Earp was away on an errand for the posse).

Vermillion did not accompany Virgil Earp as a member of the protective squad which escorted him to Tucson, March 20, 1882. Instead, Vermillion joined the vendetta posse March 21, 1882 in Tombstone, a day after the killing of Stilwell in Tucson, and thus Vermillion was not one of the 5 men indicted for Stilwell's killing. He presumably did participate in the killing of Florentino Cruz on March 22, and he had his horse shot out from under him during the fight at Iron Springs (March 24), in which Curly Bill Brocius was killed. Vermillion was himself not hit in that fight, but he had to be picked up by Doc Holliday after exposing himself to fire from the cow-boys, while trying to retrieve the rifle wedged under his fallen horse. This episode, combined with Wyatt's memory in the Flood manuscript, suggests that Vermillion may have participated in the Earp posse more as friend of Holliday, who was also a Methodist and fellow southerner. Note that Holliday's father had also served as a Confederate soldier. Vermillion family history also suggests a friendship between Holliday and Texas Jack (see link below).

Dodge City war[]

In 1883, Vermillion was involved with the Dodge City War.

Soapy Smith gang[]

In 1888, he joined the Jefferson Randolph Soapy Smith gang in Denver, Colorado in which he worked as a booster and shill. In August 1889 he was with Soapy Smith, Bascomb Smith, and "Fatty Gray" Morris at the Pocatello, Idaho train depot shootout, where a rival bunco gang tried to assassinate Soapy. His name is not mentioned in newspapers in Denver again.[1]

Gunfight and return to Virginia[]

Sometime during his stay in Dodge he killed a card cheat this is when he appears on the wanted poster as Texas Jack Vermillion. Sometime between 1883 and 1889 (perhaps due to this charge) his handle of "Texas Jack" changed to "Shoot-Your-Eye-Out-Jack" Vermillion. Reportedly, he had shot a man in the eye (perhaps the same man from the card game). It is about this time (also perhaps related to the shooting) that he left Kansas and returned to Virginia (about 1890 according to family history), where he either married again, or returned to a second marriage (see below) to Nannie Fleenor.

Later life[]

Vermillion eventually returned permanently to Virginia, settling at Big Stone Gap and working as a Methodist preacher. His second wife (1883?) was Nannie Fleenor. They became the parents of a son, Opie Vermillion, and a daughter, Minnie Bell Vermillion.

Death (and some open historical identity questions)[]


John Wilson Vermillion Photos 1861 and 1910

Vermillion is said in many sources (including Earp biographer Flood, who is probably the primary source for the information) to have drowned in Lake Michigan near Chicago, about 1900. Young (cite below) states that Vermillion's body was returned to Virginia for burial, but Flood does not say this, and Young does not cite his source. Young may have assumed the body was returned, since there is evidence that Vermillion is buried in Virginia (see below).

Vermillion family records suggest that Jack Vermillion died peacefully in his sleep in 1911, not 1900. A photograph of him and his second wife ca. 1910 survives in the family record (see link below). A John W. Vermillion (farmer) is also listed in the 1910 census in Washington Co., Virginia (this is just South of Russell County and Big Stone Gap). This man, listed as aged 66, is listed as being born in Virginia, married in Virginia, 35 years(?) to wife Nannie. Whether this is the same man is not definitely known. The implied birth date would be wrong, but reasonably close (about 1844 not 1842); however the given marriage date would be far off (35 years from 1910 is 1875, not 1883). The place of residence is in the same relatively small area in the western tail of Virginia where Texas Jack was born, and is said in other sources to have returned. The issue is not resolved. Visually, the elderly man in the 1910 photograph (link below—see also at right) could well be the young J.W. Vermillion from the Civil War photo (the reader is invited to compare).

According to Vermillion family history, Jack killed a man in a gunfight in 1890, and was forced to move 60 miles east to Mendota, Virginia, in Washington County (which fits with the census report), where he spent the rest of his days. John W. Vermillion's grave and that of his wife is in the Mendota Cemetery.[2]

Film representations[]

Vermillion appears as a minor character in most Wyatt Earp films. In the 1967 film Hour of the Gun, he is played by actor William Windom.

Texas Jack is played by Peter Sherayko in the film Tombstone.


  1. Smith, Jeff (2009). Alias Soapy Smith: The Life and Death of a Scoundrel, Klondike Research. pp. 75, 88, 91-92, 162-63, 165, 170, 175. ISBN 0-9819743-0-9
  2. Wyatt Earp's Thirteen Dead Men, Ben T. Traywick, Red Marie's Books, Tombstone, AZ, 1998. Contains photo of John W. Vermillion tombstone in the Mendota cemetery, and some photos of surviving Vermillion family, pp. 252–3.
  • Roy B. Young (1999). Cochise County Cowboy War. Young and Sons Enterprises, Apache O.K.. ISBN not assigned.  A self-published but useful compendium of bio information on minor Tombstone characters.

External links[]