Civil War Wiki
State Passed Referendum Vote
S. Carolina December 20, 1860.[1]
Mississippi January 9, 1861.[2]
Florida January 10, 1861.[3]
Alabama January 11, 1861.[4]
Georgia January 19, 1861.[5]
Louisiana January 26, 1861.[6]
Texas February 1, 1861.[7] February 23 46,153-14,747
Virginia April 17, 1861.[8] May 23 132,201-37,451
Arkansas May 6, 1861.[9]
Tennessee May 6, 1861.[10] June 8 104,471-47,183
N. Carolina May 20, 1861.[11]
Missouri October 31, 1861.[12]
Kentucky November 20, 1861.[13]

The Ordinance of Secession was the document drafted and ratified in 1860 and 1861 by the states officially seceding from the United States of America. Each state ratified its own ordinance of secession, typically by means of a specially elected convention or general referendum.

During the Civil War, the states of Missouri and Kentucky had competing confederate and unionist governments claiming authority over their states. Missouri's ordinance was approved by a legislative session called by Claiborne Fox Jackson, the pro-confederate governor (see Missouri secession). Kentucky's was approved by a convention of 200 people representing 65 counties of the state, but without support from the unionist state government. The Confederacy officially seated both of these states in 1862, though they were contested throughout the war.

Virginia's ordinance was approved by a referendum but rejected by the northwestern section of the state (see Wheeling Convention), leading to the creation of West Virginia.

Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas also issued separate declarations of causes, in which they explained their reasons for secession.

See also[]


External links[]