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Lorenzo Thomas
[[Image:150px|center|200px|border]]Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas
Personal Information
Born: October 26, 1804(1804-10-26)
Place of Birth: {{{place of birth}}}
Died: March 2, 1875 (aged 70)
Place of Death: {{{place of death}}}
Nickname: {{{nickname}}}
Birth Name: {{{birth name}}}
Other Information
Allegiance: United States of America
Union
Participation(s): {{{participations}}}
Branch: Union Army
Service Years: {{{service years}}}
Rank: Brevet Major General
Service number : {{{servicenumber}}}
Unit:
Commands:
Battles: American Civil War
Awards:
Relations: {{{relations}}}
Other work: {{{otherwork}}}


Lorenzo Thomas (October 26, 1804 – March 2, 1875) was a career United States Army officer who was Adjutant General of the Army at the beginning of the American Civil War. After the war, he was appointed temporary Secretary of War by President Andrew Johnson, precipitating Johnson's impeachment.

Early life[]

Thomas was born in New Castle, Delaware. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1823, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Infantry. He fought in the Seminole War in Florida and, during the Mexican-American War, he was the chief of staff to General William O. Butler. He received a brevet promotion to lieutenant colonel for Monterrey. From 1853 to 1861, he served as chief of staff to the commanding general of the U.S. Army, Winfield Scott.

Civil War[]

File:The situation.jpg

The Situation
A Harper's Weekly cartoon gives a humorous breakdown of "the situation". Secretary of War Edwin Stanton aims a cannon labeled "Congress" on the side at Thomas and President Andrew Johnson to show how he was using congress to defeat the president and his unsuccessful replacement. He also holds a rammer marked "Office Bill" and cannon balls on the floor are marked "Justice". Ulysses S. Grant and an unidentified man stand to Stanton's left.

Just before the start of the Civil War, Thomas was promoted to colonel and adjutant general of the U.S. Army on March 7, 1861. He was promoted to brigadier general on May 7. Camp Thomas, a Regular Army training base in Columbus, Ohio, was named in his honor in July 1861. He held the position of adjutant general until he retired in 1869, except for a special assignment to recruit African-American troops in the Military Division of the Mississippi from 1863 to 1865.

Thomas did not get along well with Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and this assignment outside of Washington, D.C., was considered a form of banishment. Many historians have claimed Thomas was banished in disgrace after conspiring to defame Union General William T. Sherman as insane.[1] Thomas was replaced by Maj. Gen. Edward D. Townsend as Adjutant General, who would serve until 1880.[2]

From March 17 to July 23, 1862, he served as the chairman of the War Board, the organization that assisted President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary Stanton in the management of the War Department and the command of the Union armies during the period in which there was no general-in-chief. Just before the end of the war, he was given a brevet promotion to major general in the regular army, as of March 13, 1865.

Postbellum[]

On February 21, 1868, President Johnson attempted to replace Stanton by appointing Thomas as Secretary of War ad interim. Thomas, still stinging from his bad treatment by Stanton, boasted of his ability and determination to oust him from office by force, if necessary. Some historians believe that it was this attitude in his testimony at Johnson's impeachment trial in the Senate that was partially responsible for Johnson's acquittal. Thomas retired from the Army on February 22, 1869, ten days before Johnson left office. He died in Washington, D.C. and is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, Georgetown, Washington, D.C..

Fort Thomas, a military post established in Arizona Territory in 1876, was named for Thomas.[3]

See also[]

32x28px United States Army portal
32x28px American Civil War portal

References[]

  • Sears, Stephen W., Neely, Mark E., Fellman, Michael, and Simon, John Y., ed. by Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln's Generals. Oxford University Press. 1994. pp. 135–138. ISBN 0195101103
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Neely, Mark E., Fellman, Michael, and Simon, John Y., ed. by Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln's Generals. Oxford University Press. 1994. ISBN 0195101103
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.

Notes[]

External links[]

  • Document detailing $52,899 in property losses Thomas suffered during the Civil War. Thomas was eventually awarded $6,500 from the government.

Template:Start box |- ! colspan="3" style="background: #CF9C65;" | Military offices

|- style="text-align: center;" |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Samuel Cooper |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Adjutant Generals of the U. S. Army
March 7, 1861-February 22, 1869 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Edward D. Townsend |- |}

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