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John Salmon Ford (May 26, 1815 – November 3, 1897), better known as "Rip" Ford, was a member of the Republic of Texas Congress and later of the State Senate, and mayor of Brownsville, Texas. He was also a Texas Ranger, a Confederate colonel, and a journalist. Ford commanded the Confederate forces in the last engagement of the American Civil War, the Battle of Palmito Ranch on May 12–13, 1865. It was a Confederate victory, but as it occurred more than a month after Robert E. Lee's surrender it had no effect on the outcome of the war.

Early life[]

Ford was born in Greenville District, South Carolina, but grew up in Lincoln County, Tennessee. His parents were William and Harriet Ford. When he was 16 he moved to Shelbyville, Tennessee to study medicine. There he met his future wife, Mary Davis. However, the marriage ended in divorce and Ford decided to move to Texas, then fighting for its independence from Mexico.

Ford in Texas[]

Ford arrived in Texas in June 1836, too late to participate in the Texas Revolution. He served in the Texas army until 1838, when he opened a medical practice in the east Texas town of San Augustine. Ford practiced medicine until 1844, when he won election to the Texas legislature, advocating annexation by the United States. The following year he moved to Austin, where he purchased the Texas National Register, renaming it the Texas Democrat.

When the Mexican War began, Ford enlisted in Jack Hays' regiment of Texas Mounted Rifles. However, he was promptly appointed a lieutenant and would serve as both adjutant and medical officer. He saw active duty with his regiment in Mexico, commanding a scout company part of the time. He received the nickname 'Rip' for his peculiarity of including the words "Rest in Peace" after each and every name when composing his company's casualty lists.

In 1849, with Robert Neighbors, Ford explored the country between San Antonio and El Paso and published a report and map of the route, which became known as the Ford and Neighbors Trail. Later the same year he was made captain in the Texas Rangers and was stationed between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande, where he had numerous fights with the Indians during 1850 and 1851.

In 1852 he was elected to the Texas Senate and again became an editor of the State Times, published in Austin until 1857. Early in 1858, he accepted a commission in the state troops and defeated hostile Native Americans in two major battles on the Canadian River. Late in 1859, he was sent to the Rio Grande, where he commanded operations against Juan Cortina.

In 1861, Ford served as a member of the Secession Convention, and initiated a trade agreement between Mexico and the Confederacy. He was elected colonel of the 2nd Texas Cavalry, with a command in the Rio Grande district. Between 1862 and 1865 he was commandant of conscripts, and at various times he was engaged in border operations protecting Confederate-Mexican trade. In May 1865, he led Confederate forces in the battle of Palmito Ranch, the last battle of the Civil War.

External links[]

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