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John Roy Lynch (September 10, 1847 - November 2, 1939) was the first African-American Speaker of the House in Mississippi. He was also one of the first African-Americans elected to the U.S House of Representatives during Reconstruction, the period in United States history after the Civil War.
Lynch was born a slave near Vidalia, Concordia Parish, Louisiana. His father Patrick Lynch, an immigrant from Ireland, was a planter near Vidalia. His mother Catherine White was a slave. After John's birth, his father planned to move the family to New Orleans and free them. His fatal illness ended this plan. A friend, promising to free the family, took title of John and his mother from Patrick before he died. But the friend instead sold Catherine and John to a planter in Natchez, Mississippi. They were held in slavery until 1863, after the Union Army arrived in Mississippi and President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, Lynch learned the photography trade and managed a successful business in Natchez. Although the total of his formal education was only four months in night school, he educated himself by reading books and newspapers. In addition, Lynch eavesdropped on class lessons in a white school.
Lynch's leadership was recognized in post-war political opportunities, as he won elections first as Justice of the Peace, and then as Mississippi State Representative. He was only 26 when he was elected to the US Congress in 1873. There, he continued to be an activist, introducing many bills and arguing on their behalf. Perhaps his greatest effort was in the long debate supporting the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to ban discrimination in public accommodations.
The contesting of Lynch's third term election, in 1876, was typical of the political times. He was not allowed to take his seat, but he ran again in 1880. This election was also contested, and Lynch fought for a year before being seated. The next election was close, leaving him little time to campaign. Lynch lost re-election in 1882 election by only 600 votes.
In 1884 Lynch was the first African American nominated after a moving speech by Theodore Roosevelt to the position of Temporary Chairman of the Republican National Convention in Chicago, Illinois.
Also in 1884 Lynch married Ella Sommerville. They had a daughter before their divorce. During the Spanish-American War of 1898, he was appointed Treasury Auditor and then Paymaster under the Republicans. In 1901, he began serving with the Regular Army with tours of duty in the United States, Cuba, and the Philippines.
Lynch retired from the Army in 1911, then married Cora Williams. They moved to Chicago, where he practiced law. He also became involved in real estate. After his death in Chicago 1939 at the age of 92, he was buried with military honors in Arlington National Cemetery. He was entitled to this as a Congressman and veteran.
Part of his famous speech on civil rights
|“||They were faithful and true to you then; they are no less so today. And yet they ask no special favors as a class; they ask no special protection as a race. They feel that they purchased their inheritance, when upon the battlefields of this country, they watered the tree of liberty with the precious blood that flowed from their loyal veins. They ask no favors, they desire; and must have; an equal chance in the race of life.||”|
After the turn of the centutry, Lynch wrote a book, The Facts of Reconstruction, and several articles criticizing the then-dominant Dunning School historiography. Dunning and followers had emphasized the views of former slave owners and routinely downplayed any positive contributions of African Americans during Reconstruction, as well as suggesting they could not manage any political power. Lynch argued that blacks had made substantial contributions during the period. The Facts of Reconstruction is freely available online, courtesy of the Gutenberg Project. Since he participated directly in Reconstruction-era governments, Lynch's book is considered a primary source in study of the period.
Works by Lynch
- The Late Election in Mississippi. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877.
- Colored Americans: John R. Lynch's Appeal To Them. Milwaukee: Allied Printing, [1900?]
- The Facts of Reconstruction. New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1913. Reprint, edited by William C. Harris, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1970.
- The Facts of Reconstruction (New York, 1913), online
- Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes. Boston: The Cornhill Publishing Co., 1922.
- Pittsburgh Courier, article, February 22, 1930.
- Bell, Frank C. "The Life and Times of John R. Lynch: A Case Study 1847-1939", Journal of Mississippi History, 38 (February 1976): 53-67.
- DeSantis, Vincent P.Republican Face the Southern Question: The New Departure Years, 1877-1897 (Baltimore, 1959)
- Foner, Eric ed. "Lynch, John Roy" in Freedom's Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction, Revised Edition. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996). ISBN 0-8071-2082-0.
- Franklin, John Hope. "Lynch, John Roy" in Dictionary of American Negro Biography, edited by Rayford W. Logan and Michael R. Winston, pp. 407–9. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1982.
- Franklin, John Hope editor, Reminiscences of an Active Life: The Autobiography of John Roy Lynch (Chicago, 1970).
- Franklin, John Hope. "John Roy Lynch: Republican Stalwart from Mississippi" in Howard Rabinowitz, (ed.), Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era (Urbana, 1982) and reprinted in John Hope Franklin, Race and History: Selected Essays, 1938-1988 (Louisiana State University Press, 1989)
- "John Roy Lynch" in Black Americans in Congress, 1870-1989. Prepared under the direction of the Commission on the Bicentenary by the Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1991.
- McLaughlin, James Harold. John R. Lynch, The Reconstruction Politician: A Historical Perspective. Ph.D. diss., Ball State University, 1981.
- Mann, Kenneth Eugene. "John Roy Lynch: U.S. Congressman from Mississippi", Negro History Bulletin, 37 (April/May 1974): 238-41.
- Schweninger, Loren. Black Property Owners in the South 1790-1915 (Urbana, Ill., 1990)
- List of United States Representatives from Mississippi#6th District
- U.S. House election, 1872
- U.S. House election, 1874
- U.S. House election, 1876
- U.S. House election, 1882
- The Facts of Reconstruction by John R. Lynch at Project Gutenberg
- John R. Lynch at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Biography at the African American Registry
- Works by John R. Lynch at Project Gutenberg
- 404 - Not Found at www.toptags.com
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