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Commodore James Armstrong (17 January 1794 – 27 August 1868) was an officer in the United States Navy during the American Civil War.

With San Jacinto as his flagship, Armstrong served as the Commodore of the East India Squadron in 1855 during the Second Opium War. Following the Battle of the Pearl Forts, Armstrong's health began to fail and he returned to the United States. Captain Josiah Tattnall relieved him.

On 12 January 1861, Armstrong surrendered the Pensacola Navy Yard to Confederate forces from Alabama and Florida for which he was later court-martialed. Some historians estimate that as many of 75% of his officers were Pro-Secession.

Armstrong was born in Shelbyville, Kentucky. He was apparently living in Massachusetts upon his death.

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