- For the text of the Gettysburg Address see Gettysburg Address at WikiSource
The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and is one of the best-known speeches in United States history. It was delivered by Lincoln during the American Civil War, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg.
Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, and that would also create a unified nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant.
Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago," referring to the American Revolution of 1776, Lincoln examined the founding principles of the United States in the context of the Civil War, and used the ceremony at Gettysburg as an opportunity not only to consecrate the grounds of a cemetery, but also to exhort the listeners to ensure the survival of America's representative democracy, that the "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording of the speech is disputed. The five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address differ in a number of details and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech.
- 1 Background
- 2 Political significance
- 3 Program and Everett's "Gettysburg Oration"
- 4 Text of Gettysburg Address
- 5 Lincoln's sources
- 6 Five manuscripts
- 7 Contemporary sources and reaction
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
From July 1–3, 1863, 172,000 American soldiers clashed in the Battle of Gettysburg, in what would prove to be a turning point of the Civil War. The battle also had a major impact on the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, which numbered only 2,400 inhabitants. The battlefield was left with the bodies of more than 7,500 soldiers and 5,000 horses of the Army of the Potomac and the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, and the stench of rotting bodies in the humid July air was overpowering.
Interring the dead in a dignified and orderly manner became a high priority for the few thousand residents of Gettysburg. Initially, the town planned to buy land for a cemetery and then ask the families of the dead to pay for their burial. However, David Wills, a wealthy 32-year-old attorney, objected to this idea and wrote to the Governor of Pennsylvania, Andrew Gregg Curtin, suggesting instead a National Cemetery to be funded by the states. Wills was authorized to purchase Template:Convert/LonAoffDbSoffNa for a cemetery to honor those lost in the battle, paying $2,475.87 for the land.
Wills originally planned to dedicate this new cemetery on Wednesday, October 23, and invited Edward Everett, who had served as Secretary of State, U.S. Senator, U.S. Representative, Governor of Massachusetts, president of Harvard University, and Vice Presidential candidate, to be the main speaker. At that time, Everett was a widely famed orator. In reply, Everett told Wills and his organizing committee that he would be unable to prepare an appropriate speech in such a short period of time, and requested that the date be postponed. The committee agreed, and the dedication was postponed until Thursday, November 19.
Wills and the event committee then invited President Lincoln to participate in the ceremony. Wills's letter stated, "It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks." Lincoln received formal notice of his invitation to participate only seventeen days before the ceremony, whereas Everett had been invited 40 days earlier: "Although there is some evidence Lincoln expected Wills's letter, its late date makes the author appear presumptuous...Seventeen days was extraordinarily short notice for presidential participation even by nineteenth-century standards." Furthermore, Wills's letter "made it equally clear to the president that he would have only a small part in the ceremonies", perhaps akin to the modern tradition of inviting a noted public figure to do a ribbon-cutting at a grand opening.
Lincoln arrived by train in Gettysburg on November 18, and spent the night as a guest in Wills's house on the Gettysburg town square, where he put the finishing touches on the speech he had written in Washington, D.C. Contrary to a common myth, Lincoln neither completed his address while on the train nor wrote it on the back of an envelope. This story is at odds with the existence of several early drafts on Executive Mansion stationery as well as the reports of Lincoln's final editing while a guest of David Wills in Gettysburg. On the morning of November 19 at 9:30 a.m., Lincoln, astride a chestnut bay horse and riding between Secretary of State William H. Seward and Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, joined in a procession with the assembled dignitaries, townspeople, and widows marching out to the grounds to be dedicated.
Approximately 15,000 people are estimated to have attended the ceremony, including the sitting governors of six of the 24 Union states: Andrew Gregg Curtin of Pennsylvania, Augustus Bradford of Maryland, Oliver P. Morton of Indiana, Horatio Seymour of New York, Joel Parker of New Jersey, and David Tod of Ohio. Canadian politician William McDougall attended as Lincoln's guest. The precise location of the program within the grounds of the cemetery is disputed. Reinterment of the bodies buried from field graves into the cemetery, which had begun within months of the battle, was less than half complete on the day of the ceremony.
By August 1863, the casualty lists from Civil War battles included a quarter of a million names. As a result, anti-war and anti-Lincoln sentiments grew in the North. Peace Democrats known as Copperheads were eager to oust Lincoln in the 1864 election in order to end the war through concessions to the Confederacy, and Lincoln's 1863 drafts were highly unpopular. Hatred for Lincoln's draft climaxed just ten days after the Battle of Gettysburg with the New York Draft Riots. In September 1863, Pennsylvania's Governor Curtin warned Lincoln that political sentiments were turning against the war effort:
If the election were to occur now, the result would be extremely doubtful, and although most of our discreet friends are sanguine of the result, my impression is, the chances would be against us. The draft is very odious in the State... the Democratic leaders have succeeded in exciting prejudice and passion, and have infused their poison into the minds of the people to a very large extent, and the changes are against us.
The following year the Presidential election would be held, and Lincoln was quite concerned that the Copperheads might prevail. Well into the summer of 1864, Lincoln remained convinced that the opposition would oust him. In the fall of 1863, one of Lincoln's principal concerns was to sustain the Union's spirits toward the war effort. That goal was the chief aim of Lincoln's Address at Gettysburg.
Program and Everett's "Gettysburg Oration"
Template:Wikisourcepar The program organized for that day by Wills and his committee included:
- Music, by Birgfield's Band
- Prayer, by Reverend T.H. Stockton, D.D.
- Music, by the Marine Band
- Oration, by Hon. Edward Everett
- Music, Hymn composed by B.B. French, Esq.
- Dedicatory Remarks, by the President of the United States
- Dirge, sung by Choir selected for the occasion
- Benediction, by Reverend H.L. Baugher, D.D.
While it is Lincoln's short speech that has gone down in history as one of the finest examples of English public oratory, it was Everett's two-hour oration that was slated to be the "Gettysburg address" that day. His now seldom-read 13,607-word oration began:
- "Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and Nature. But the duty to which you have called me must be performed; — grant me, I pray you, your indulgence and your sympathy."
And ended two hours later with:
- "But they, I am sure, will join us in saying, as we bid farewell to the dust of these martyr-heroes, that wheresoever throughout the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, and down to the latest period of recorded time, in the glorious annals of our common country, there will be no brighter page than that which relates the Battles of Gettysburg."
Text of Gettysburg Address
A modern recording of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
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Shortly after Everett's well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke for but a few minutes . With a "few appropriate remarks", he was able to summarize the war in just ten sentences.
Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure. Of these versions, the Bliss version, written well after the speech as a favor for a friend, is viewed by many as the standard text. Its text differs, however, from the written versions prepared by Lincoln before and after his speech. It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written.
|“||Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
In Lincoln at Gettysburg, Garry Wills notes the parallels between Lincoln's speech and Pericles's Funeral Oration during the Peloponnesian War as described by Thucydides. (James McPherson notes this connection in his review of Wills's book. Gore Vidal also draws attention to this link in a BBC documentary about oration.) Pericles' speech, like Lincoln's, begins with an acknowledgment of revered predecessors: "I shall begin with our ancestors: it is both just and proper that they should have the honour of the first mention on an occasion like the present"; then praises the uniqueness of the State's commitment to democracy: "If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences"; honors the sacrifice of the slain, "Thus choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonour, but met danger face to face"; and exhorts the living to continue the struggle: "You, their survivors, must determine to have as unfaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a happier issue." In contrast, writer Adam Gopnik, in The New Yorker, notes that while Everett's Oration was explicitly neoclassical, referring directly to Marathon and Pericles, "Lincoln’s rhetoric is, instead, deliberately Biblical. (It is difficult to find a single obviously classical reference in all of his speeches.) Lincoln had mastered the sound of the King James Bible so completely that he could recast abstract issues of constitutional law in Biblical terms, making the proposition that Texas and New Hampshire should be forever bound by a single post office sound like something right out of Genesis."
Several theories have been advanced by Lincoln scholars to explain the provenance of Lincoln's famous phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people." In a discussion "A more probable origin of a famous Lincoln phrase," in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Albert Shaw credits a correspondent with pointing out the writings of William Herndon, Lincoln's law partner, who wrote in the 1888 work Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life that he had brought to Lincoln some of the sermons of abolitionist minister Theodore Parker, of Massachusetts, and that Lincoln was moved by Parker's use of this idea:
I brought with me additional sermons and lectures of Theodore Parker, who was warm in his commendation of Lincoln. One of these was a lecture on 'The Effect of Slavery on the American People'...which I gave to Lincoln, who read and returned it. He liked especially the following expression, which he marked with a pencil, and which he in substance afterwards used in his Gettysburg Address: 'Democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, for all the people, by all the people.'
Craig R. Smith, in "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity", suggested Lincoln's view of the government as expressed in the Gettysburg Address was influenced by the noted speech of Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster, the "Second Reply to Hayne", in which Webster famously thundered "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" Specifically, in this January 26, 1830 speech before the United States Senate, Webster described the federal government as: "made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people," foreshadowing Lincoln's "government of the people, by the people, for the people." Webster also noted, "This government, Sir, is the independent offspring of the popular will. It is not the creature of State legislatures; nay, more, if the whole truth must be told, the people brought it into existence, established it, and have hitherto supported it, for the very purpose, amongst others, of imposing certain salutary restraints on State sovereignties."
Wills observed Lincoln's usage of the imagery of birth, life, and death in reference to a nation "brought forth," "conceived," and that shall not "perish." Others, including Allen C. Guelzo, the director of Civil War Era studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, suggested that Lincoln's formulation "four score and seven" was an allusion to the King James Version of the Bible's Template:Sourcetext, in which man's lifespan is given as "threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years."
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The five known manuscript copies of the Gettysburg Address are each named for the associated person who received it from Lincoln. Lincoln gave a copy to each of his private secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay. Both of these drafts were written around the time of his November 19 address, while the other three copies of the address, the Everett, Bancroft, and Bliss copies, were written by Lincoln for charitable purposes well after November 19. In part because Lincoln provided a title and signed and dated the Bliss Copy, it has become the standard text of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
The two earliest drafts of the Address are associated with some confusion and controversy regarding their existence and provenance. Nicolay and Hay were appointed custodians of Lincoln's papers by Lincoln's son Robert Todd Lincoln in 1874. After appearing in facsimile in an article written by John Nicolay in 1894, the Nicolay Copy was presumably among the papers passed to Hay by Nicolay's daughter Helen upon Nicolay's death in 1901. Robert Lincoln began a search for the original copy in 1908, which resulted in the discovery of a handwritten copy of the Gettysburg Address among the bound papers of John Hay—a copy now known as the "Hay Draft."
The Hay Draft differed from the version of the Gettysburg Address published by John Nicolay in 1894 in a number of significant ways: it was written on a different type of paper, had a different number of words per line and number of lines, and contained editorial revisions in Lincoln's hand.
Both the Hay and Nicolay copies of the Address are within the Library of Congress, encased in specially designed, temperature-controlled, sealed containers with argon gas in order to protect the documents from oxidation and continued deterioration.
The Nicolay CopyTemplate:Ref label is often called the "first draft" because it is believed to be the earliest copy that exists. Scholars disagree over whether the Nicolay Copy was actually the reading copy Lincoln held at Gettysburg on November 19. In an 1894 article that included a facsimile of this copy, Nicolay, who had become the custodian of Lincoln's papers, wrote that Lincoln had brought to Gettysburg the first part of the speech written in ink on Executive Mansion stationery, and that he had written the second page in pencil on lined paper before the dedication on November 19. Matching folds are still evident on the two pages, suggesting it could be the copy that eyewitnesses say Lincoln took from his coat pocket and read at the ceremony. Others believe that the delivery text has been lost, because some of the words and phrases of the Nicolay Copy do not match contemporary transcriptions of Lincoln's original speech. The words "under God", for example, are missing in this copy from the phrase "that this nation (under God) shall have a new birth of freedom..." In order for the Nicolay draft to have been the reading copy, either the contemporary transcriptions were inaccurate, or Lincoln would have had to depart from his written text in several instances. This copy of the Gettysburg Address apparently remained in John Nicolay's possession until his death in 1901, when it passed to his friend and colleague John Hay. It is on permanent display as part of the American Treasures exhibition of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.
The existence of the Hay CopyTemplate:Ref label was first announced to the public in 1906, after the search for the "original manuscript" of the Address among the papers of John Hay brought it to light. Significantly, it differs somewhat from the manuscript of the Address described by John Hay in his article, and contains numerous omissions and inserts in Lincoln's own hand, including omissions critical to the basic meaning of the sentence, not simply words that would be added by Lincoln to strengthen or clarify their meaning. However, in this copy, as in the Nicolay Copy, the words "under God" are not present.
This version has been described as "the most inexplicable" of the drafts and is sometimes referred to as the "second draft." The "Hay Copy" was made either on the morning of the delivery of the Address, or shortly after Lincoln's return to Washington. Those that believe that it was completed on the morning of his address point to the fact that it contains certain phrases that are not in the first draft but are in the reports of the address as delivered and in subsequent copies made by Lincoln. It is probable, they conclude, that, as stated in the explanatory note accompanying the original copies of the first and second drafts in the Library of Congress, Lincoln held this second draft when he delivered the address. Lincoln eventually gave this copy to his other personal secretary, John Hay, whose descendants donated both it and the Nicolay Copy to the Library of Congress in 1916.
The Everett Copy,Template:Ref label also known as the "Everett-Keyes Copy," was sent by President Lincoln to Edward Everett in early 1864, at Everett's request. Everett was collecting the speeches at the Gettysburg dedication into one bound volume to sell for the benefit of stricken soldiers at New York's Sanitary Commission Fair. The draft Lincoln sent became the third autograph copy, and is now in the possession of the Illinois State Historical Library in Springfield, Illinois, where it is currently on display in the Treasures Gallery of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum.
The Bancroft CopyTemplate:Ref label of the Gettysburg Address was written out by President Lincoln in February 1864 at the request of George Bancroft, the famed historian and former Secretary of the Navy whose comprehensive ten volume History of the United States later led him to be known as the "father of American History." Bancroft planned to include this copy in Autograph Leaves of Our Country's Authors, which he planned to sell at a Soldiers' and Sailors' Sanitary Fair in Baltimore. As this fourth copy was written on both sides of the paper, it proved unusable for this purpose, and Bancroft was allowed to keep it. This manuscript is the only one accompanied both by a letter from Lincoln transmitting the manuscript and by the original envelope addressed and franked by Lincoln. This copy remained in the Bancroft family for many years, was sold to various dealers and purchased by Nicholas and Marguerite Lilly Noyes, who donated the manuscript to Cornell in 1949. It is now held by the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections in the Carl A. Kroch Library at Cornell University. It is the only one of the five copies to be privately owned.
Discovering that his fourth written copy could not be used, Lincoln then wrote a fifth draft, which was accepted for the purpose requested. The Bliss Copy,Template:Ref label named for Colonel Alexander Bliss, Bancroft's stepson and publisher of Autograph Leaves, is the only draft to which Lincoln affixed his signature. Lincoln is not known to have made any further copies of the Gettysburg Address. Because of the apparent care in its preparation, and in part because Lincoln provided a title and signed and dated this copy, it has become the standard version of the address and the source for most facsimile reproductions of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
This draft now hangs in the Lincoln Room of the White House, a gift of Oscar B. Cintas, former Cuban Ambassador to the United States. Cintas, a wealthy collector of art and manuscripts, purchased the Bliss Copy at a public auction in 1949 for $54,000, at that time the highest price ever paid for a document at public auction. Cintas' properties were claimed by the Castro government after the Cuban Revolution in 1959, but Cintas, who died in 1957, willed the Gettysburg Address to the American people, provided it would be kept at the White House, where it was transferred in 1959.
Garry Wills concluded the Bliss Copy "is stylistically preferable to others in one significant way: Lincoln removed 'here' from 'that cause for which they (here) gave...' The seventh 'here' is in all other versions of the speech." Wills noted the fact that Lincoln "was still making such improvements," suggesting Lincoln was more concerned with a perfected text than with an 'original' one.
Another contemporary source of the text is the Associated Press dispatch, transcribed from the shorthand notes taken by reporter Joseph L. Gilbert. It also differs from the drafted text in a number of minor ways.
Contemporary sources and reaction
Eyewitness reports vary as to their view of Lincoln's performance. In 1931, the printed recollections of 87-year-old Mrs. Sarah A. Cooke Myers, who at the age of 19 was present, suggest a dignified silence followed Lincoln's speech: "I was close to the President and heard all of the Address, but it seemed short. Then there was an impressive silence like our Menallen Friends Meeting. There was no applause when he stopped speaking." According to historian Shelby Foote, after Lincoln's presentation, the applause was delayed, scattered, and "barely polite." In contrast, Pennsylvania Governor Curtin maintained, "He pronounced that speech in a voice that all the multitude heard. The crowd was hushed into silence because the President stood before them...It was so Impressive! It was the common remark of everybody. Such a speech, as they said it was!"
In an oft-repeated legend, Lincoln is said to have turned to his bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon and remarked that his speech, like a bad plow, "won't scour." According to Garry Wills, this statement has no basis in fact and largely originates from the unreliable recollections of Lamon. In Garry Wills's view, "Template:Interpolation had done what he wanted to do Template:Interpolation."
In a letter to Lincoln written the following day, Everett praised the President for his eloquent and concise speech, saying, "I should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion, in two hours, as you did in two minutes." Lincoln replied that he was glad to know the speech was not a "total failure".
Other public reaction to the speech was divided along partisan lines. The next day the Democratic-leaning Chicago Times observed, "The cheek of every American must tingle with shame as he reads the silly, flat and dishwatery utterances of the man who has to be pointed out to intelligent foreigners as the President of the United States." In contrast, the Republican-oriented New York Times was complimentary. The Springfield, Ma. Republican newspaper printed the entire speech, calling it "a perfect gem" that was "deep in feeling, compact in thought and expression, and tasteful and elegant in every word and comma." The Republican predicted that Lincoln's brief remarks would "repay further study as the model speech".
William R. Rathvon is the only known eyewitness of both Lincoln's arrival at Gettysburg and the address itself to have left an audio recording of his recollections. One year before his death in 1939, Rathvon's reminiscences were recorded on February 12, 1938 at the Boston studios of radio station WRUL, including his reading the address, itself, and a 78 rpm record was pressed. The title of the 78 record was "I Heard Lincoln That Day - William R. Rathvon, TR Productions." A copy wound up at National Public Radio (NPR) during a "Quest for Sound" project in 1999. NPR continues to air them around Lincoln's birthday.
The only known and confirmed photograph of Lincoln at Gettysburg, taken by photographer David Bachrach was identified in the Mathew Brady collection of photographic plates in the National Archives and Records Administration in 1952. While Lincoln's speech was short and may have precluded multiple pictures of him while speaking, he and the other dignitaries sat for hours during the rest of the program. Given the length of Everett's speech and the length of time it took for 19th century photographers to get "set up" before taking a picture, it is quite plausible that the photographers were ill prepared for the brevity of Lincoln's remarks.
In 2006, Civil War enthusiast John Richter was credited with identifying two additional photographs in the Library of Congress collection that potentially show President Lincoln in the procession at Gettysburg.
Usage of "under God"
The words "under God" do not appear in the Nicolay and Hay drafts but are included in the three later copies (Everett, Bancroft, and Bliss). Accordingly, some skeptics maintain that Lincoln did not utter the words "under God" at Gettysburg. However, at least three reporters telegraphed the text of Lincoln's speech on the day the Address was given with the words "under God" included. Historian William E. Barton argues that:
- "Every stenographic report, good, bad and indifferent, says 'that the nation shall, under God, have a new birth of freedom.' There was no common source from which all the reporters could have obtained those words but from Lincoln's own lips at the time of delivery. It will not do to say that [Secretary of War] Stanton suggested those words after Lincoln's return to Washington, for the words were telegraphed by at least three reporters on the afternoon of the delivery."
The reporters present included Joseph Gilbert, from the Associated Press; Charles Hale, from the Boston Advertiser; John R. Young (who later became the Librarian of Congress), from the Philadelphia Press; and reporters from the Cincinnati Commercial, New York Tribune, and New York Times. Charles Hale "had notebook and pencil in hand, [and] took down the slow-spoken words of the President". "He took down what he declared was the exact language of Lincoln's address, and his declaration was as good as the oath of a court stenographer. His associates confirmed his testimony, which was received, as it deserved to be at its face value." The most logical explanation is that Lincoln deviated from his prepared text and inserted the phrase when he spoke.
The importance of the Gettysburg Address in the history of the United States is underscored by its enduring presence in American culture. In addition to its prominent place carved into a stone cella on the south wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the Gettysburg Address is frequently referred to in works of popular culture, with the implicit expectation that contemporary audiences will be familiar with Lincoln's words.
In the many generations that have passed since the Address, it has remained among the most famous speeches in American history. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is itself referenced in another of those famed orations, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech. Standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in August 1963, King began with a reference to President Lincoln and his enduring words: "Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice."
The Constitution of France (under the Fifth Republic established in 1958) states that the principle of the Republic of France is "gouvernement du peuple, par le peuple et pour le peuple" ("government of the people, by the people, and for the people,") a literal translation of Lincoln's words.
The aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) has as its ship's motto the phrase "shall not perish."
- Template:Note label The Gettysburg Address: Nicolay Copy, page 1 (jpg), and The Gettysburg Address: Nicolay Copy page 2 (jpg). The Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.
- Template:Note label The Gettysburg Address: Hay Copy, page 1 (jpg), The Gettysburg Address, Hay Copy, page 2 (jpg). The Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
- Template:Note label Everett Copy (jpg). virtualgettsyburg.com. Retrieved from internet archive 2007-06-14 version on 2007-12-10.
- Template:Note label Bancroft Copy cover letter (pic), Bancroft Copy, page 1 (pic), page 2 (pic). Cornell University Library. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
- Template:Note label Bliss Copy, page 1 (jpg), page 2 (jpg), page 3 (jpg). Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
- Historian James McPherson has called it "The most eloquent expression of the new birth of freedom brought forth by reform liberalism.", in McPherson, James M. Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 185. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
- Rawley, p. 147; Sauers, p. 827; McPherson, p. 665. McPherson cites the combination of Gettysburg and Vicksburg as the turning point.
- "Yes, there was a Gettysburg before the 1863 battle". Dobbin House, Inc.. 2006. http://www.gettysburg.com/bog/bogstora/before.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
- Busey and Martin, p. 125. Union/Confederate casualties: 3,155 killed/4,708 killed; 14,531 /12,693 wounded; 5,369/5,830 captured/missing.
- Murphy, Jim. The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Clarion Books, 1992, p. 97. Amazon Books.
- Murphy, pp. 98–99.
- "Lincoln Invited to Gettysburg to Consecrate a Civil War Cemetery, November 19, 1863". Library of Congress. 2005-01-10. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/gainvi.html. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- Murphy, p.1: "Now, at the age of 69, [Everett] was one of America's most famous orators."; also Wilkinson, William Cleaver (1911). Daniel Webster: A Vindication, with other historical essays.. New York and London: Funk & Wagnalls Company. p. 181. "Edward Everett was famous in his day, indeed, is famous yet, as confessedly and easily foremost among all the orators of the classic or academic type belonging to his generation in America."
- Gramm, Kent (2001). November: Lincoln's Elegy at Gettysburg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-253-34032-2. "Asked in September to deliver the oration...Everett had said that he could not possibly be ready until November 19."
- Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 24–25, p. 35, pp. 34–35, p. 36.
- "An Official Invitation to Gettysburg (Top Treasure)". American Treasures of the Library of Congress. December 5, 2002. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trt031.html. Retrieved 2007-11-23.
- "Abraham Lincoln in the Wills House Bedroom at Gettysburg". Lincoln at Gettysburg Photo Tour. Abraham Lincoln Online. 2007. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/tours/gettyroom.htm. Retrieved 2005-12-18.
- Johnson, Martin P (Summer 2003). "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 24 (2): 1–19. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jala/24.2/johnson.html.
- "Lincoln urban legends debunked". The Lincoln Museum. Archived from the original on November 24, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051124051108/http://www.thelincolnmuseum.org/new/research/stories.html. Retrieved 2005-12-18.
- "Abraham Lincoln at the Gettysburg Town Square". Lincoln at Gettysburg Photo Tour. Abraham Lincoln Online. 2007. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/tours/gettysquare.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- "Saddle Used by Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg". Lincoln at Gettysburg Photo Tour. Abraham Lincoln Online. 2007. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/tours/gettysaddle.htm. Retrieved 2005-12-18.
- "The Heroes of July; A Solemn and Imposing Event. Dedication of the National Cemetery at Gettysburgh". The New York Times: p. 1. November 20, 1863. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080119105131/http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9B06E1DD1F3BE63BBC4851DFB7678388679FDE&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2007-11-23. Full article in PDF available here.
- William McDougall and Alexander Tilloch Galt, both Canadian "Fathers of Confederation", were in Washington to renegotiate the Reciprocity Treaty, and McDougall accompanied Lincoln to Gettysburg, according to a speech given by U.S. President Eisenhower to a joint session of the Parliament of Canada, and referenced in the Parliament of Canada official transcripts, Hansard.
- "Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg Cemetery". Lincoln at Gettysburg Photo Tour. Abraham Lincoln Online. 2007. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/tours/gettycem2.htm. Retrieved 2005-12-18.
- "Gettysburg Address Information". Dobbin House Inc.. 1996–2006. http://www.gettysburg.com/bog/ga.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-30. at gettysburg.com.
- "How We are Revenging Sumpter," May, 1863.
- Andrew Curtin to Abraham Lincoln, Sept. 4, 1863 (Library of Congress)
- Lincoln, Abraham; Nicolay, John G.; Hay, John (1894). Abraham Lincoln; complete works, comprising his speeches, letters, state papers, and miscellaneous writings. II. New York: Century Co.. pp. 568. http://books.google.com/?id=8JhYAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA568.
- Murphy, Jim (2000). Long Road to Gettysburg. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 5. ISBN 9780618051571. http://books.google.com/?id=toHtEecTeFkC&pg=PA5&dq=Standing+beneath+this+serene+sky,+overlooking+these+broad+fields+now+reposing+from+the+labors+of+the+waning+year,+the+mighty+Alleghenies+dimly+towering+before+us+Everett. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- Reid, Ronald F (1990). Edward Everett: Unionist Orator, Vol. 7. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 192. ISBN 9780313261640. http://books.google.com/?id=tEW3d6zqrTUC&pg=PA192&lpg=PA192&dq=as+we+bid+farewell+to+the+dust+of+these+%22martyr+heroes%22+everett. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- Murphy, Jim. The Long Road to Gettysburg, New York: Clarion Books, 1992. p. 105, "with a pronounced Kentucky accent."
- Gopnik, Adam (May 28, 2007). "Angels and Ages: Lincoln's language and its legacy". http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/28/070528fa_fact_gopnik. Retrieved 2007-11-23. Gopnik notes, "Gabor Boritt, in his book The Gettysburg Gospel, has a thirty-page appendix that compares what Lincoln (probably) read at the memorial with what people heard and reported. Most of the differences are small, and due to understandable confusions...A few disputes seem more significant."
- Also note Johnson's reference that "In 1895 Congress had voted to place at Gettysburg a bronze tablet engraved with the address but had mandated a text that does not correspond to any in Lincoln's hand or to contemporary newspaper accounts. The statute is reprinted in Henry Sweetser Burrage, Gettysburg and Lincoln: The Battle, the Cemetery, and the National Park (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906), 211."
- Boritt, Gabor. The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows., Appendix B p. 290: "This is the only copy that...Lincoln dignified with a title: 'Address delivered at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg.', a rare full signature, and the date: 'November 19, 1863.' ..This final draft, generally considered the standard text, remained in the Bliss family until 1949."
- Einhorn, Lois (1992). Abraham Lincoln, the orator: penetrating the Lincoln legend. Greenwood Press. p. 92. ISBN 0313261687. http://books.google.com/?id=0RB3AAAAMAAJ&q=%22Henry+Bush-Brown%22+lincoln&dq=%22Henry+Bush-Brown%22+lincoln.
- McPherson, James M (July 16, 1992). ""The Art of Abraham Lincoln"". The New York Review of Books, Volume 39, Number 13. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2852. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- "Yes We Can! The Lost Art Of Oratory". BBC Two. 2009-04-05.
- ""Pericles' Funeral Oration from Thucydides: Peloponnesian War"". Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics. The Constitution Society. 2007. http://www.constitution.org/gr/pericles_funeral_oration.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Shaw, Albert, ed. The American Monthly Review of Reviews. Vol. XXIII, January–June 1901. New York: The Review of Reviews Company, 1901. p. 336.
- Herndon, William H. and Jesse W. Welk. Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1892. Vol II., p 65.
- Smith, Craig (Fall greger2000). "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity". American Communication Journal 4 (1). http://www.acjournal.org/holdings/vol4/iss1/special/smith.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
- "The Second Reply to Hayne (January 26–27, 1830)". Daniel Webster: Dartmouth's Favorite Son. Dartmouth. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~dwebster/speeches/hayne-speech.html. Retrieved 2007-11-30. Webster himself may have been relying on earlier use of similar language. For example, John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton had employed similar phraseology in 1819: "I am a man chosen for the people, by the people; and, if elected, I will do no other business than that of the people." See Broughton, John and Burdett, Francis. An Authentic Narrative of the Events of the Westminster Election, which Commenced on Saturday, February 13th, and Closed on Wednesday, March 3d, 1819 page 105 (Published by R. Stodart, 1819).
- Vosmeier, Matthew Noah (January/February 1992). "Lincoln and the 'Central Idea of the Occasion': Garry Wills's Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words that Remade America."". Lincoln Lore (The Lincoln Museum). http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jala/15.2/williams.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Guelzo, Allen C (November 21, 2006). "When the Court lost its Conscience". The Wall Street Journal. http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/?id=110009279. Retrieved 2006-11-26.
- McInerney, Daniel J (September 2000). "Review of Allen C. Guelzo, Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President". H-Pol, H-Net Reviews. http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=24004970690837. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Guelzo, Allen C (1999). Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-3872-3.
- Rao, Maya (April 6, 2005). "C.U. Holds Gettysburg Address". Cornell Daily Sun. http://cornellsun.com/node/14486. Retrieved 2007-11-23. : "Several months after President Abraham Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg address, renowned historian George Bancroft attended a reception at the White House. There, he asked Lincoln for a hand-written copy of the address, and that manuscript is now the highlight of Cornell University Library's Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections." "[Visitors]...can also see the letter Lincoln enclosed when he mailed the copy to Bancroft, which is dated February 29, 1864."
- White, Ronald C. Jr. The Eloquent President: A Portrait of Lincoln Through His Words. New York: Random House, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-6119-9 Appendix 9, p. 390: "The Bliss copy...Lincoln made in March 1864...The Everett and Bancroft copies, both of which Lincoln made in February 1864."
- Boritt, Gabor (November 16, 2006). "In Lincoln's Hand". Wall Street Journal. http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/?id=110009250. Retrieved 2007-11-23.
- "Preservation of the drafts of the Gettysburg Address at the Library of Congress"". Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/gapres.html. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Nicolay, J. "Lincoln's Gettysburg Address," Century Magazine 47 (February 1894): 596–608, cited by Johnson, Martin P. "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address," Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 24(2) (Summer 2003): 1–19.
- "The Gettysburg Address Drafts". Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/gadrft.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- Sandburg, Carl. "Lincoln Speaks at Gettysburg." In: Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (1939) New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. II, 452–57; cited by Prochnow, Victor Herbert. ed. Great Stories from Great Lives Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1944. ISBN 083692018X, p. 13: "The Cincinnati Commercial reporter wrote 'The President rises slowly, draws from his pocket a paper...[and] reads the brief and pithy remarks."
- Wills, Garry. Appendix I: "this text does not have three important phrases that the joint newspaper accounts prove he actually spoke," and "there is no physical impossibility that this is the delivery text, but it is... unlikely that it is."
- Top Treasures. American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
- David Mearns, "Unknown at this Address," in Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address: Commemorative Papers, ed. Allan Nevins (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964), 133; Mearns and Dunlap, caption describing the facsimile of the Hay text in Long Remembered.; both cited in Johnson, "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address."
- "Gettysburg National Military Park". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/misc/gettysburg/g2.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-03. Historical Handbook Number Nine 1954 (Revised 1962), at the Gettysburg National Military Park Historical Handbook website.
- "The Gettysburg Address Drafts". Library of Congress. 2005-09-29. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/gadrft.html. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
- ""George Bancroft"". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9012106/George-Bancroft. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- See also: ""George Bancroft"". Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwpstnKC. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- ""Gettysburg Address"". Cornell University Library. http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/gettysburg/good_cause.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- "Founding Collections: Nicholas H. Noyes ’06 and Marguerite Lilly Noyes". Cornell University Library. http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/footsteps/exhibition/foundingcollections/foundingcollections_5.html. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- "C.U. Holds Gettysburg Address Manuscript". The Cornell Daily Sun. April 6, 2005. http://cornellsun.com/node/14486. Retrieved 2005-12-18.
- "About Cintas: Oscar B. Cintas". Oscar B. Cintas foundation. http://www.cintasfoundation.org/about_oscar.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- Boritt, Gabor (November 16, 2006). "Change of Address: The Gettysburg Drafts". The Wall Street Journal: p. D6. http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/?id=110009250. Retrieved 2006-12-04.
- Bryan, William Jennings, ed. 1906. The World's Famous Orations Vol. IX. America: II. (1818–1865). "V. The Speech at Gettysburg by Abraham Lincoln.". http://www.bartleby.com/268/9/26.html#txt2. Retrieved 2005-12-18.
- "1846 - 1900: The News Cooperative Takes Shape". History/Archives: The Associated Press. Associated Press.org. http://www.ap.org/pages/about/history/history_first.html. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Hark, Ann. "Mrs. John T. Myers Relives the Day She Met the Great Emancipator". Recollections of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg. Abraham Lincoln online. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/news/recollect.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-30. Citing the Philadelphia Public Ledger of February 7, 1932.
- Foote, Shelby (1958). The Civil War, A Narrative: Fredericksburg to Meridian. Random House. ISBN 0-394-49517-9.
- Simon, et al., eds. The Lincoln Forum: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Civil War. Mason City: Savas Publishing Company, 1999. ISBN 1-882810-37-6, p. 41
- name=Prochow, Herbert Victor, "Great Stories from Great Lives," Harper & Brothers, 1944, pge 17
- "Gettysburg Eyewitness - Lost and Found Sound: The Boy Who Heard Lincoln". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1045619. Retrieved 2009-09-07.
- "21 Minute audio recording of William R. Rathvon's audio recollections of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address recorded in 1938". NPR. http://www.npr.org/programs/lnfsound/stories/990215.stories.html. Retrieved 2009-09-07. and "6 min. version. SMIL file format.". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/dmg/dmg.php?prgCode=ATC&showDate=15-Feb-1999&segNum=14&NPRMediaPref=RAM. Retrieved 2009-09-07.
- "The Only Known Photograph of President Lincoln at the dedication of the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863". Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/gaphot.html. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- "Bachrach in the news". Bachrach photography. http://www.bachrachinc.com/html/in_the_news.html. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- Toppo, Greg (November 15, 2007). "Honestly, is that really Abe in 3-D?". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-11-15-lincoln_N.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- Walker, Cliff (ed.) (September 2002). "Lincoln's Gettysburg 'Under God': Another case of 'retrofitting'? (reply)". Positive Atheism. http://www.positiveatheism.org/mail/eml8448.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- Randi, James (October 10, 2003). "Lincoln Embellished". James Randi Educational Foundation. http://www.randi.org/jr/101003.html. Retrieved 2007-12-03. : "The Gettysburg address...is often given as the source of the addition to the Pledge of Allegiance that we often hear, that phrase, 'under God.' Wrong."
- Barton, pp. 138–139
- Prochnow, p. 14
- Prochnow, p. 13
- Prochnow, p. 15
- Sandburg, Carl. "Lincoln Speaks at Gettysburg." In: Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (1939) New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. II, 452-457; cited by Prochnow, p. 14.
- Barton, p. 81
- "Outline of U.S. History". United States Department of State. p. 73. http://www.america.gov/st/educ-english/2008/April/20080407120920eaifas0.4535639.html. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
- Garrow, David J. (August 2003). ""Martin Luther King Jr: the March, the Man, the Dream."". American History magazine. http://www.america.gov/st/pubs-english/2003/August/20050711151842pssnikwad0.3846247.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "[F]our days before the March [King] told Al Duckett, a black journalist...that his August 28 oration needed to be "sort of a Gettysburg Address.""
- "Constitution du 4 octobre 1958". http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/conseil-constitutionnel/root/bank_mm/anglais/constiution_anglais_oct2009.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- "How the Gettysburg Address Worked". howstuffworks.com. http://history.howstuffworks.com/gettysburg-address.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- He has stood that day, the world's foremost spokesman of popular government, saying that democracy was yet worth fighting for. He had spoken as one in mist who might head on deeper yet into the mist. He incarnated the assurances and pretenses of popular government, implied that it could and might perish from the earth. What he meant by "a new birth of freedom" for the nation could have a thousand interpretations. The taller riddles of democracy stood up out of the address. It had the dream touch of vast and furious events epitomized for any foreteller to read what was to come. He did not assume that the drafted soldiers, substitutes, and bounty-paid privates had died willingly under Lee's shot and shell, in deliberate consecration of themselves to the Union cause. His cadences sang the ancient song that where there is freedom men have fought and sacrificed for it, and that freedom is worth men's dying for. For the first time since he became President he had on a dramatic occasion declaimed, howsoever it might be read, Jefferson's proposition which had been a slogan of the Revolutionary War - "All men are created equal" - leaving no inference other than that he regarded the Negro slave as a man. His outwardly smooth sentences were inside of them gnarled and tough with the enigmas of the American experiment. - Carl Sandburg
- Barton, William E. (1950). Lincoln at Gettysburg: What He Intended to Say; What He Said; What he was Reported to have Said; What he Wished he had Said. New York: Peter Smith.
- Boritt, Gabor (2006). The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows Simon & Schuster. 432 pp. ISBN 0743288203
- Busey, John W., and Martin, David G., Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg, 4th Ed., Longstreet House, 2005, ISBN 0-944413-67-6.
- Gramm, Kent. (2001) November: Lincoln's Elegy at Gettysburg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34032-2.
- Herndon, William H. and Welk, Jesse W. (1892) Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life (Vol II). New York: D. Appleton and Company.
- Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr. (1983) A New Birth of Freedom: Lincoln at Gettysburg. Little Brown & Co. 263 pp. ISBN 0316506001
- Lafantasie, Glenn. "Lincoln and the Gettysburg Awakening." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 1995 16(1): 73–89. Issn: 0898-4212
- McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
- McPherson, James M. (1996). Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509679-7
- Murphy, Jim. (1992) The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Clarion Books. 128 pp. ISBN 0395559650
- Prochnow, Victor Herbert. ed. (1944). Great Stories from Great Lives. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1944. ISBN 083692018X
- Rawley, James A. (1966). Turning Points of the Civil War. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8935-9.
- Reid, Ronald F. "Newspaper Responses to the Gettysburg Addresses." Quarterly Journal of Speech 1967 53(1): 50–60. Issn: 0033-5630.
- Sandburg, Carl. (1939) "Lincoln Speaks at Gettysburg." In: Abraham Lincoln: The War Years New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. II, 452-457. ASIN: B000BPD8GC
- Sauers, Richard A. (2000) "Battle of Gettysburg." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
- Selzer, Linda. "Historicizing Lincoln: Garry Wills and the Canonization of the 'Gettysburg Address." Rhetoric Review Vol. 16, No. 1 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 120–137.
- Simon, et al., eds. (1999) The Lincoln Forum: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Civil War. Mason City: Savas Publishing Company. ISBN 1-882810-37-6
- White, Ronald C. Jr. (2005) The Eloquent President: A Portrait of Lincoln Through His Words. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6119-9
- Wieck, Carl F. (2002) Lincoln's Quest for Equality: The Road to Gettysburg. Northern Illinois University Press. 224 pp. ISBN 0875802990
- Wills, Garry. (1992) Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America. New York: Simon and Schuster. 319 pp. ISBN 0671769561
- Wilson, Douglas L. (2006). Lincoln's Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Words. Knopf. 352 pp. ISBN 1400040396
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- Library of Congress, Gettysburg Address exhibit
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- Abraham Lincoln: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress
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